Introduction to Applied and Environmental Geophysics 2E

Introduction to Applied and Environmental Geophysics 2E

Reynolds, John M.

John Wiley and Sons Ltd

04/2011

710

Dura

Inglês

9780471485353

15 a 20 dias

* Inclusion of new techniques: thermal imaging and radioactivity methods * New section on case histories of multi-method environmental geophysical investigations * Improved artwork quality and layout .
Preface to the 2nd Edition xi Acknowledgements xiii 1 Introduction 1 1.1 What are applied and environmental geophysics? 1 1.2 Geophysical methods 3 1.3 Matching geophysical methods to applications 5 1.4 Planning a geophysical survey 5 1.5 Geophysical survey design 9 2 Gravity Methods 19 2.1 Introduction 19 2.2 Physical basis 19 2.3 Measurement of gravity 24 2.4 Gravity meters 26 2.5 Corrections to gravity observations 34 2.6 Interpretation methods 45 2.7 Applications and case histories 59 3 Geomagnetic Methods 83 3.1 Introduction 83 3.2 Basic concepts and units of geomagnetism 83 3.3 Magnetic properties of rocks 87 3.4 The Earth s magnetic field 89 3.5 Magnetic instruments 95 3.6 Magnetic surveying 100 3.7 Qualitative interpretation 103 3.8 Quantitative interpretation 107 3.9 Applications and case histories 123 4 Applied Seismology: Introduction and Principles 143 4.1 Introduction 143 4.2 Seismic waves 144 4.3 Raypath geometry in layered ground 149 4.4 Loss of seismic energy 152 4.5 Seismic energy sources 154 4.6 Detection and recording of seismic waves 169 5 Seismic Refraction Surveying 179 5.1 Introduction 179 5.2 General principles of refraction surveying 179 5.3 Geometry of refracted raypaths 182 5.4 Interpretational methods 186 5.5 Applications and case histories 193 5.6 Shear wave methods 208 6 Seismic Reflection Surveying 217 6.1 Introduction 217 6.2 Reflection surveys 217 6.3 Reflection data processing 228 6.4 Correlating seismic data with borehole logs and cones 246 6.5 Interpretation 250 6.6 Applications 257 7 Electrical Resistivity Methods 289 7.1 Introduction 289 7.2 Basic principles 289 7.3 Electrode configurations and geometric factors 293 7.4 Modes of deployment 301 7.5 Interpretation methods 311 7.6 ERT applications and case histories 326 7.7 Mise-'a-la-masse (MALM) method 336 7.8 Leak detection through artificial membranes 346 8 Spontaneous (Self) Potential Methods 349 8.1 Introduction 349 8.2 Occurrence of self-potentials 349 8.3 Origin of self-potentials 349 8.4 Measurement of self-potentials 353 8.5 Corrections to SP data 354 8.6 Interpretation of self-potential anomalies 354 8.7 Applications and case histories 357 8.8 Electrokinetic (EK) surveying 371 9 Induced Polarisation 373 9.3 Measurement of induced polarisation 376 9.4 Applications and case histories 384 10 Electromagnetic Methods: Introduction and Principles 403 10.1 Introduction 403 10.2 Principles of EM surveying 407 10.3 Airborne EM surveying 411 10.4 Seaborne EM surveying 418 10.5 Borehole EM surveying 426 11 Electromagnetic Methods: Systems and Applications 431 11.1 Introduction 431 11.2 Continuous-wave (CW) systems 431 11.3 Pulse-transient (TEM) or time-domain (TDEM) EM systems 467 12 Electromagnetic Methods: Systems and Applications II 495 12.1 Very-low-frequency (VLF) methods 495 12.2 The telluric method 502 12.3 The magnetotelluric (MT) method 505 12.4 Magnetic Resonance Sounding (MRS) 519 13 Introduction to Ground-Penetrating Radar 535 13.1 Introduction 535 13.2 Principles of operation 537 13.3 Propagation of radiowaves 539 13.4 Dielectric properties of earth materials 546 13.5 Modes of data acquisition 552 13.6 Data processing 554 13.7 Interpretation techniques 560 14 Ground-Penetrating Radar: Applications and Case Histories 565 14.1 Geological mapping 565 14.2 Hydrogeology and groundwater contamination 571 14.3 Glaciological applications 578 14.4 Engineering applications on manmade structures 587 14.5 Voids within manmade structures 599 14.6 Archaeological investigations 603 14.7 Forensic uses of GPR 607 14.8 Wide-aperture radar mapping and migration processing 607 14.9 Borehole radar 609 14.10 UXO and landmine detection 617 14.11 Animals 618 15 Radiometrics 625 15.1 Introduction 625 15.2 Natural radiation 625 15.3 Radioactivity of rocks 628 15.4 Radiation detectors 628 15.5 Data correction methods 633 15.6 Radiometric data presentation 635 15.7 Case histories 636 Appendix 645 References 649 Index 681
Este título pertence ao(s) assunto(s) indicados(s). Para ver outros títulos clique no assunto desejado.