Structural Geology of Rocks and Regions 3E

Structural Geology of Rocks and Regions 3E

Kluth, Charles F.; Reynolds, Stephen J.; Davis, George H.

John Wiley & Sons Inc

11/2011

864

Dura

Inglês

9780471152316

15 a 20 dias

Relates the physical and geometric elegance of geologic structures within the Earth's crust and the ways in which these structures reflect the nature and origin of crystal deformation through time. The main thrust is on applications in regional tectonics, exploration geology, active tectonics and geohydrology.
P A R T 1 FUNDAMENTALS 1 CHAPTER 1 Nature of Structural Geology 2 Motivation and Context 2 Practical Applications 5 Field Work 7 Deformation is the Heart of the Matter 7 Architecture and Structural Geology 16 Plate Tectonics and Structural Geology 18 The Fundamental Structures 21 Concept of Detailed Structural Analysis 29 The Time Factor 32 CHAPTER 2 Displacement and Strain 34 Transformations 34 Displacement Vectors and Deformation 35 Kinematics 36 Deformation and Kinematics in Active Tectonic Settings 40 Translation 44 Rotation 53 Strain 59 Coaxial and Noncoaxial Strain 78 Three-Dimensional Strain Analysis 84 On to Dynamics 89 CHAPTER 3 Force, Stress, and Strength 90 Introduction 90 Dynamic Analysis 91 Force 95 Tractions 101 Stress 106 Determining Relationships between Stress and Strain 120 Conducting Deformation Experiments in the Laboratory 128 Evaluating Mechanical Behavior During Testing 138 Conclusions 147 CHAPTER 4 Deformation Mechanisms and Microstructures 148 Exploring at the Fine Scale 148 Crystalline Structure and the Strength of Solids 149 Slip Systems and Bonding 152 Deformation Mechanisms 157 Deformation Experiments 181 The BrittleDuctile Transition 188 A Few Final Thoughts 191 P A R T 2 STRUCTURES 192 CHAPTER 5 Joints 193 Definitions and Distinctions 193 Glimpse of Joint Formation in Response to Loading and Stress 201 Detailed Look at Individual Joint Surfaces 204 Growth of Joint Sets 212 Joint Spacing in Relation to a Single Bed 216 Joint Saturation and Joint In-Filling 223 Creation of Joints in the Laboratory 226 Influence of Pore Fluid Pressure on Jointing 230 A Microscopic Look at the Mechanics of Jointing 236 Examples of Interpreting Regional Joint Patterns 239 Opportunities in Fracture Analysis 247 CHAPTER 6 Faults 249 Introduction 249 Recognizing Faults: The Physical Character of Faults 251 Brittle Fault Rocks 260 Map and Subsurface Expressions of Faults 267 The Naming and Classification of Faults 272 Determination of Slip on Faults 278 Strain Significance of Faults 281 Mechanics of Faulting 286 Thrust Fault Systems 305 Normal Faulting 321 Strike-Slip Faulting 334 Concluding Remarks 343 CHAPTER 7 Folds 344 Incentives for Study 344 Anticlines and Synclines 351 Geometric Analysis of Folds 358 Transition from Geometry to Dynamics 383 Buckling 384 Flexural Folding 390 Kink Folding 397 Passive Folding 401 Regional Tectonic Folding 403 Conclusions 404 CHAPTER 8 Fault-Fold Interactions 405 Incentives for Even Further Study 405 General Model of Fault-Related Folding 407 Assumptions About Dip Domains and Fault-Related Folds 408 Fault-Bend Folds 409 Fault-Propagation Folds 414 Fault-Related Folding Created Through Stretching 428 Salt-Related Structures 433 Structural Inversion 443 Folds Associated With Strike-Slip Faulting 447 Role of Structural Development in Sedimentation 449 Structural Balance 452 Small-Scale Structures, and Scaling 459 Concluding Thoughts 461 CHAPTER 9 Foliation and Lineation 463 Nature of Foliation and Lineation 463 Nature of Cleavage 465 Microscopic Properties of Cleavage and Schistosity 472 Strain Significance of Cleavage 475 Relationship of Cleavage to Other Structures 487 Foliation 492 Lineation 501 Descriptive/geometric Analysis of Foliation and Lineation 511 Strain, Shearing, and Fabric Development 515 Estimating Strain 520 Tectonite-Forming Geologic Settings 526 On to Shear Zones 529 CHAPTER 10 Shear Zones and Progressive Deformation 530 The Nature of Shear Zones 530 Types of Shear Zones 540 Why Shear Zones Form, Thin, and Thicken 546 Strain in Shear Zones 548 Determining Sense of Shear 556 Fabric Development and its Relation to the Amount of Strain in Shear Zones 577 Inside the Ellipse: Progressive Deformation 586 On to Active Tectonics 598 CHAPTER 11 Active Tectonics 599 Structural Geology and Active Tectonics 599 Plan of Action for This Chapter 600 Western United States 603 The San Andreas Fault 606 The Los Angeles Basin 616 The Eastern California Shear Zone 627 Relation To Cascadia, American Northwest 649 The Basin and Range 656 The Wasatch Front 666 The Hurricane Fault 673 Finishing Up 677 Summing Up 680 P A R T 3 DESCRIPTIVE ANALYSIS: HOW TO FUNCTION IN THE FIELD, AND HOW TO REDUCE THE DATA 683 A. Nature of Descriptive Analysis 684 B. Geologic Mapping 687 C. Mapping Contact Relationships 697 D. Identifying Primary Structures 706 E. Measuring the Orientations of Structures 711 F. Preparing Geologic Cross-Sections 718 G. Preparing Subsurface Contour Maps 726 H. Using Orthographic Projection 728 I. Carrying Out Stereographic Projection 735 J. Evaluating Rotation Using Stereographic Projection 751 K. Determining Slip on a Fault through Orthographic and Stereographic Projection 757 L. Carrying Out Strain Analysis 760 M. Determining the Relationship of Faults to Principal Stress Directions 767 N. Carrying Out Joint Analysis 769 O. Engaging in Fault Analysis 778 P. Carrying Out Fold Analysis 779 Q. Deciphering Structure in Boreholes 785 R. Studying Shear Zones in the Field 790 S. Determining Focal Mechanisms for Earthquakes 793 REFERENCES 799 AUTHOR INDEX 823 SUBJECT INDEX 829
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